Inhibition of the lipopolysaccharide-induced stimulation of the members of the MAPK family in human monocytes/macrophages by 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of oxidized omega-6 fatty acids.
The compound 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is the major aldehyde formed during lipid peroxidation of omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids and has been suggested to regulate inflammatory responses because it inhibits tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA production in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Here we demonstrate that 4-HNE inhibits TNF and interleukin-1beta production in human monocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide. The main action of 4-HNE occurred at the pretranscriptional level; there was no effect on TNF mRNA production or stability when 4-HNE was added after stimulation. The mechanism of action of 4-HNE appears to be downstream of lipopolysaccharide-receptor binding. In the human monocytic MonoMac 6 cell line, 4-HNE caused selective inhibition of the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and ERK1/ERK2, but not JNK. However, in monocytes, the activities of all three kinases were inhibited, suggesting that the effects of 4-HNE were exerted at points upstream of ERK1/ERK2 and JNK as the levels of the phosphorylated kinases were reduced. In contrast, p38 phosphorylation was not inhibited, suggesting that 4-HNE affects kinase activity. 4-HNE also inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB activation in monocytes. In view of the roles of p38, ERK1/ERK2, JNK, and nuclear factor-kappaB in inflammation, the data suggest that 4-HNE, at nontoxic concentrations, has anti-inflammatory properties, most likely through an effect on these signaling molecules, and could lead to the development of novel treatments for inflammatory diseases.
|Authors:||Marantos C, Mukaro V, Ferrante J, Hii C, Ferrante A.|
|Journal:||Am J Pathol. 173(4):1057-66.|
|PubMed:||Find in PubMed|