Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals characteristics of myeloid cells in post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 patients with persistent respiratory symptoms.


Background: Although our understanding of the immunopathology and subsequent risk and severity of COVID-19 disease is evolving, a detailed account of immune responses that contribute to the long-term consequences of pulmonary complications in COVID-19 infection remains unclear. Few studies have detailed the immune and cytokine profiles associated with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) with persistent pulmonary symptoms. The dysregulation of the immune system that drives pulmonary sequelae in COVID-19 survivors and PASC sufferers remains largely unknown. Results: To characterize the immunological features of pulmonary PASC (PPASC), we performed droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to study the transcriptomic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a participant naive to SARS-CoV-2 (Control) (n=1) and infected with SARS-CoV-2 with chronic pulmonary symptoms (PPASC) (n=2). After integrating scRNA-seq data with a naive participant from a published dataset, 11 distinct cell populations were identified based on the expression of canonical markers. The proportion of myeloid-lineage cells ([MLCs]; CD14+/CD16+monocytes, and dendritic cells) was increased in PPASC (n=2) compared to controls (n=2). MLCs from PPASC displayed up-regulation of genes associated with pulmonary symptoms/fibrosis, while glycolysis metabolism-related genes were downregulated. Similarly, pathway analysis showed that fibrosis-related (VEGF, WNT, and SMAD) and cell death pathways were up-regulated, but immune pathways were down-regulated in PPASC. Further comparison of PPASC with scRNA-seq data with Severe COVID-19 (n=4) data demonstrated enrichment of fibrotic transcriptional signatures. In PPASC, we observed interactive VEGF ligand-receptor pairs among MLCs, and network modules in CD14+ (cluster 4) and CD16+ (Cluster 5) monocytes displayed a significant enrichment for biological pathways linked to adverse COVID-19 outcomes, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Further analysis revealed a distinct metabolic alteration in MLCs with a down-regulation of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in PPASC compared to SARS-CoV-2 naive samples. Conclusion: Analysis of a small scRNA-seq dataset demonstrated alterations in the immune response and cellular landscape in PPASC. The presence of elevated MLC levels and their corresponding gene signatures associated with fibrosis, immune response suppression, and altered metabolic states suggests a potential role in PPASC development.

Authors: Yoon H, Dean LS, Jiyarom B, Khadka VS, Deng Y, Nerurkar VR, Chow DC, Shikuma CM, Devendra G, Koh Y, Park J,
Journal: Front Immunol; 2024 Jan 8:14:1268510 doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1268510
Year: 2024
PubMed: PMID: 38259488 (Go to PubMed)