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Surface integrity modification of CoCrMo alloy by deep rolling in combination with sub-zero cooling as potential implant application.


Alloys made of CoCrMo are well established as implants materials since decades in orthopedic surgery. The good mechanical properties, biocompatibility and especially the corrosion resistance are important rationales for the use of these alloys. Nevertheless, retrieved implants from revision surgery showed the occurrence of abrasion and corrosion. The wear mechanisms and the occurring corrosion processes might be reduced with a functionalization of the surface. The hexagonal phase of the cobalt chromium matrix plays an important role in the surface functionalization. It can be specifically transformed and set during the manufacturing process. One possibility for the induction of the transformation is the use of a deep rolling process in combination with a novel "sub-zero" cooling strategy during machining. The influence of force and temperature during the deep rolling process on the formation of the hexagonal Co-phase is examined in this study. The results from the targeted setting of the hexagonal Co-phase in the subsurface are shown. For this purpose, EBSD studies have been carried out to detect and quantify the proportion of Co-hex phase in the subsurface of the modified alloys. To analyze the mechanical properties, we measured the residual stress and hardness in the near surface layer under conditions close to the application. Furthermore, we performed biological tests to show a potential influence of the modification on the biocompatibility when using the sub-zero cooling approach. We observed no negative effect on the osteoblastic cell line which attached similarly to all tested surfaces. The investigations provide first insights into the potential use of "sub-zero" cooling in modifying orthopedic implant materials, but also the respective limits with regard to the surface functionalization. Deep rolling in combination with an innovative cooling strategy has a great potential to improve the mechanical properties of CoCr28Mo6 wrought alloy, by subsurface hardening and phase transformation.

Authors: Doering J, Basten S, Ecke M, Herbster M, Kirsch B, Halle T, Lohmann CH, Bertrand J, Aurich J,
Journal: J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater . 2023 Apr;111(4):946-957 doi:10.1002/jbm.b.35204
Year: 2023
PubMed: PMID: 36479964 (Go to PubMed)