Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Distinct immune responses associated with vaccination status and protection outcomes after malaria challenge.


Understanding immune mechanisms that mediate malaria protection is critical for improving vaccine development. Vaccination with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfRAS) induces high level of sterilizing immunity against malaria and serves as a valuable tool for the study of protective mechanisms. To identify vaccine-induced and protection-associated responses during malarial infection, we performed transcriptome profiling of whole blood and in-depth cellular profiling of PBMCs from volunteers who received either PfRAS or noninfectious mosquito bites, followed by controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) challenge. In-depth single-cell profiling of cell subsets that respond to CHMI in mock-vaccinated individuals showed a predominantly inflammatory transcriptome response. Whole blood transcriptome analysis revealed that gene sets associated with type I and II interferon and NK cell responses were increased in prior to CHMI while T and B cell signatures were decreased as early as one day following CHMI in protected vaccinees. In contrast, non-protected vaccinees and mock-vaccinated individuals exhibited shared transcriptome changes after CHMI characterized by decreased innate cell signatures and inflammatory responses. Additionally, immunophenotyping data showed different induction profiles of vdelta2+ gammadelta T cells, CD56+ CD8+ T effector memory (Tem) cells, and non-classical monocytes between protected vaccinees and individuals developing blood-stage parasitemia, following treatment and resolution of infection. Our data provide key insights in understanding immune mechanistic pathways of PfRAS-induced protection and infective CHMI. We demonstrate that vaccine-induced immune response is heterogenous between protected and non-protected vaccinees and that inducted-malaria protection by PfRAS is associated with early and rapid changes in interferon, NK cell and adaptive immune responses. Trial Registration: NCT01994525.

Authors: Oyong DA, Duffy FJ, Neal ML, Du Y, Carnes J, Schwedhelm KV, Hertoghs N, Jun SH, Miller H, Aitchison JD, De Rosa SC, Newell EW, McElrath MJ, McDermott SM, Stuart KD.
Journal: PLoS Pathog. 2023 May 17;19(5):e1011051. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1011051. eCollection 2023 May.
Year: 2023
PubMed: PMID: 37195999 (Go to PubMed)