Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Persistent Exhausted T-Cell Immunity after Severe COVID-19: 6-Month Evaluation in a Prospective Observational Study.


INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 can result in a significant and irreversible impact on long-term recovery and subsequent immune protection. Understanding the complex immune reactions may be useful for establishing clinically relevant monitoring. METHODS: Hospitalized adults with SARS-CoV-2 between March/October 2020 (n = 64) were selected. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma samples were obtained at hospitalization (baseline) and 6 months after recovery. Immunological components' phenotyping and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response were studied in PBMCs by flow cytometry. Up to 25 plasma pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were assessed by LEGENDplex immunoassays. The SARS-CoV-2 group was compared to matched healthy donors. RESULTS: Biochemical altered parameters during infection were normalized at a follow-up time point in the SARS-CoV-2 group. Most of the cytokine/chemokine levels were increased at baseline in the SARS-CoV-2 group. This group showed increased Natural Killer cells (NK) activation and decreased CD16high NK subset, which normalized six months later. They also presented a higher intermediate and patrolling monocyte proportion at baseline. T cells showed an increased terminally differentiated (TemRA) and effector memory (EM) subsets distribution in the SARS-CoV-2 group at baseline and continued to increase six months later. Interestingly, T-cell activation (CD38) in this group decreased at the follow-up time point, contrary to exhaustion markers (TIM3/PD1). In addition, we observed the highest SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell magnitude response in TemRA CD4 T-cell and EM CD8 T-cell subsets at the six-months time point. CONCLUSIONS: The immunological activation in the SARS-CoV-2 group during hospitalization is reversed at the follow-up time point. However, the marked exhaustion pattern remains over time. This dysregulation could constitute a risk factor for reinfection and the development of other pathologies. Additionally, high SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells response levels appear to be associated with infection severity.

Authors: Vazquez-Alejo E, Tarancon-Diez L, Espinar-Buitrago MS, Genebat M, Calderón A, Pérez-Cabeza G, Magro-Lopez E, Leal M, Muñoz-Fernández MÁ,
Journal: J Clin Med;2023May18; 12 (10) . doi:10.3390/jcm12103539
Year: 2023
PubMed: PMID: 37240647 (Go to PubMed)