Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Monocyte Differentiation and Heterogeneity: Inter-Subset and Interindividual Differences.


The three subsets of human monocytes, classical, intermediate, and nonclassical, show phenotypic heterogeneity, particularly in their expression of CD14 and CD16. This has enabled researchers to delve into the functions of each subset in the steady state as well as in disease. Studies have revealed that monocyte heterogeneity is multi-dimensional. In addition, that their phenotype and function differ between subsets is well established. However, it is becoming evident that heterogeneity also exists within each subset, between health and disease (current or past) states, and even between individuals. This realisation casts long shadows, impacting how we identify and classify the subsets, the functions we assign to them, and how they are examined for alterations in disease. Perhaps the most fascinating is evidence that, even in relative health, interindividual differences in monocyte subsets exist. It is proposed that the individual's microenvironment could cause long-lasting or irreversible changes to monocyte precursors that echo to monocytes and through to their derived macrophages. Here, we will discuss the types of heterogeneity recognised in monocytes, the implications of these for monocyte research, and most importantly, the relevance of this heterogeneity for health and disease.

Authors: Williams H, Mack C, Baraz R, Marimuthu R, Naralashetty S, Li S, Medbury H.
Journal: Int J Mol Sci . 2023 May 15;24(10):8757. doi: 10.3390/ijms24108757.
Year: 2023
PubMed: PMID: 37240103 (Go to PubMed)