Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Monocyte Heterogeneity in Cardiovascular Disease.


Monocytes circulate the vasculature at steady state and are recruited to sites of inflammation where they differentiate into macrophages (MF) to replenish tissue-resident MF populations and engage in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Monocytes display considerable heterogeneity, currently reflected by a nomenclature based on their expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 and CD16, distinguishing CD14++CD16- classical (cMo), CD14++CD16+ intermediate (intMo) and CD14 + CD16++ non-classical (ncMo) monocytes. Several reports point to shifted subset distributions in the context of CVD, with significant association of intMo numbers with atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. However, clear indications of their causal involvement as well as their predictive value for CVD are lacking. As recent high-parameter cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) studies suggest an even higher degree of heterogeneity, better understanding of the functionalities of these subsets is pivotal. Considering their high heterogeneity, surprisingly little is known about functional differences between MF originating from monocytes belonging to different subsets, and implications thereof for CVD pathogenesis. This paper provides an overview of recent findings on monocyte heterogeneity in the context of homeostasis and disease as well as functional differences between the subsets and their potential to differentiate into MF, focusing on their role in vessels and the heart. The emerging paradigm of monocyte heterogeneity transcending the current tripartite subset division argues for an updated nomenclature and functional studies to substantiate marker-based subdivision and to clarify subset-specific implications for CVD.

Authors: Ruder AV, Wetzels SMW, Temmerman L, Biessen EAL, Goossens P,
Journal: Cardiovasc Res; 2023 Sep 5;119(11):2033-2045. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvad069
Year: 2023
PubMed: PMID: 37161473 (Go to PubMed)