Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Toll-like receptor 2 activation in monocytes contributes to systemic inflammation and alcohol-associated liver disease in humans.


BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: In the context of gut leakiness and translocation of microbial products in alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), it is possible that systemic and liver inflammation involve the activation of circulating monocyte through gut-derived factors. We explored the association between monocytes, microbial translocation, systemic inflammation, and ALD. METHODS: Patients with alcohol use disorder following a rehabilitation program were compared with healthy controls. We determined the circulating number and proportion of monocyte subsets by FACS. The activation of signaling pathways by gut-derived microbes was analyzed by quantitative PCR in isolated monocytes. Cytokines secretion by monocytes and phagocytosis were assessed in vitro. Serum microbial translocation markers and cytokines were measured by ELISA and multiplex assay, respectively. ALD severity and liver inflammatory responses were analyzed in liver biopsies by various methods. RESULTS: In patients with alcohol use disorder, the number of blood monocytes increased compared with controls. Monocytes from patients with alcohol use disorder upregulated IL-1beta and IL-8 together with toll-like receptor 2 and downstream AP-1, while fungal sensor CARD9 was downregulated. IL-1beta and IL-8 were actively secreted upon stimulation in vitro with the toll-like receptor 2 ligand peptidoglycan. Exposure with Escherichia coli confirmed preserved bacterial phagocytic activity. In contrast, Candida albicans stimulation leads to downregulation of IL-1beta and TNFalpha compared with controls. Systemic cytokines and monocyte changes correlated with microbial translocation. Hepatic IL-1beta and IL-8 increased with ALD severity together with liver macrophage activation and upregulation of chemokines involved in monocyte attraction. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point to the contribution of activated monocytes to systemic inflammation and ALD. Monocytes likely infiltrate the liver, transform into monocyte-derived macrophages and release IL-1beta and IL-8 in response to peptidoglycan and toll-like receptor 2 activation.

Authors: Maccioni L, Kasavuli J, Leclercq S, Pirlot B, Laloux G, Horsmans Y, Leclercq I, Schnabl B, Stärkel P,
Journal: Hepatol Commun;2023May01; 7 (5) . doi:10.1097/HC9.0000000000000107
Year: 2023
PubMed: PMID: 37058088 (Go to PubMed)