Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Single-cell immune profiling reveals long-term changes in myeloid cells and identifies a novel subset of CD9+ monocytes associated with COVID-19 hospitalization.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can result in severe immune dysfunction, hospitalization, and death. Many patients also develop long-COVID-19, experiencing symptoms months after infection. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the immune response to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, gaps remain in our knowledge of how innate immunity influences disease kinetics and severity. We hypothesized that cytometry by time-of-flight analysis of PBMCs from healthy and infected subjects would identify novel cell surface markers and innate immune cell subsets associated with COVID-19 severity. In this pursuit, we identified monocyte and dendritic cell subsets that changed in frequency during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and correlated with clinical parameters of disease severity. Subsets of nonclassical monocytes decreased in frequency in hospitalized subjects, yet increased in the most severe patients and positively correlated with clinical values associated with worse disease severity. CD9, CD163, PDL1, and PDL2 expression significantly increased in hospitalized subjects, and CD9 and 6-Sulfo LacNac emerged as the markers that best distinguished monocyte subsets amongst all subjects. CD9+ monocytes remained elevated, whereas nonclassical monocytes remained decreased, in the blood of hospitalized subjects at 3-4 months postinfection. Finally, we found that CD9+ monocytes functionally released more IL-8 and MCP-1 after LPS stimulation. This study identifies new monocyte subsets present in the blood of COVID-19 patients that correlate with disease severity, and links CD9+ monocytes to COVID-19 progression.

Authors: Pandori WJ, Padgett LE, Alimadadi A, Gutierrez NA, Araujo DJ, Huh CJ, Olingy CE, Dinh HQ, Wu R, Vijayanand P, Chee SJ, Ottensmeier CH, Hedrick CC,
Journal: J Leukoc Biol;2022Jul22. doi:10.1002/JLB.4COVA0122-076R
Year: 2022
PubMed: PMID: 35866369 (Go to PubMed)