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Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia: 2022 Update on Diagnosis, Risk Stratification and Management.


DISEASE OVERVIEW: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder with overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms, with an inherent risk for leukemic transformation (~15% over 3-5 years). DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on the presence of sustained (>3 months) peripheral blood monocytosis (>=1 x 109 /L; monocytes >=10%), usually with accompanying bone marrow dysplasia. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities occur in ~ 30% of patients, while >90% have somatic gene mutations. Mutations involving TET2 (~60%), SRSF2 (~50%), ASXL1 (~40%) and the oncogenic RAS pathway (~30%) are frequent, while the presence of ASXL1 and DNMT3A mutations and the absence of TET2 mutations negatively impact over-all survival. RISK STRATIFICATION: Molecularly integrated prognostic models include the Groupe Francais des Myelodysplasies (GFM), Mayo Molecular Model (MMM) and the CMML specific prognostic model (CPSS-Mol). Risk factors incorporated into the MMM include presence of truncating ASXL1 mutations, absolute monocyte count>10 x 109 /L, hemoglobin <10 gm/dl, platelet count <100 x 109 /L and the presence of circulating immature myeloid cells. The MMM stratifies CMML patients into 4 groups: high (>=3 risk factors), intermediate-2 (2 risk factors), intermediate-1 (1 risk factor) and low (no risk factors), with median survivals of 16, 31, 59 and 97 months, respectively. RISK-ADAPTED THERAPY: Hypomethylating agents such as 5-azacitidine and decitabine are commonly used, with overall response rates of ~40-50% and complete remission rates of ~7-17%; with no impact on mutational allele burdens. Allogeneic stem cell transplant is the only potentially curative option but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Authors: Patnaik MM, Tefferi A,
Journal: Am J Hematol;2022 Mar 1;97(3):352-372 doi:10.1002/ajh.26455
Year: 2022
PubMed: PMID: 34985762 (Go to PubMed)