Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Tranexamic acid alters the immunophenotype of phagocytes after lower limb surgery.


BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent frequently used in elective surgery to reduce blood loss. We recently found it also acts as a potent immune-modulator in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing lower limb surgery were enrolled into the "Tranexamic Acid in Lower Limb Arthroplasty" (TALLAS) pilot study. The cellular immune response was characterised longitudinally pre- and post-operatively using full blood examination (FBE) and comprehensive immune cell phenotyping by flowcytometry. Red blood cells and platelets were determined in the FBE and levels of T cell cytokines and the plasmin-antiplasmin complex determined using ELISA. RESULTS: TXA administration increased the proportion of circulating CD141+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC) on post-operative day (POD) 3. It also reduced the expression of CD83 and TNFR2 on classical monocytes and levels of circulating IL-10 at the end of surgery (EOS) time point, whilst increasing the expression of CCR4 on natural killer (NK) cells at EOS, and reducing TNFR2 on POD-3 on NK cells. Red blood cells and platelets were decreased to a lower extent at POD-1 in the TXA group, representing reduced blood loss. CONCLUSION: In this investigation we have extended our examination on the immunomodulatory effects of TXA in surgery by also characterising the end of surgery time point and including B cells and neutrophils in our immune analysis, elucidating new immunophenotypic changes in phagocytes as well as NK cells. This study enhances our understanding of TXA-mediated effects on the haemostatic and immune response in surgery, validating changes in important functional immune cell subsets in orthopaedic patients.

Authors: Draxler DF, Hanafi G, Zahra S, McCutcheon F, Ho H, Keragala CB, Liu Z, Daly D, Painter T, Wallace S, Plebanski M, Myles PS, Medcalf RL,
Journal: Thromb J;2022Apr11; 20 (1) 17. doi:10.1186/s12959-022-00373-3
Year: 2022
PubMed: PMID: 35410340 (Go to PubMed)