Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Increased biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 viremic controllers and low persistent inflammation in elite controllers and art-suppressed individuals.


HIV controllers (HICs) are models of HIV functional cure, although some studies have shown persistent inflammation and increased rates of atherosclerosis in HICs. Since immune activation/inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), we evaluated clinical data and inflammation markers in HIV-1 viremic controllers (VC), elite controllers (EC), and control groups (HIV positive individuals with virological suppression by antiretroviral therapy-cART; HIV negative individuals-HIVneg) to assess whether they presented elevated levels of inflammation markers also associated with CVD. We observed the highest frequencies of activated CD8+ T cells in VCs, while EC and cART groups presented similar but slightly altered frequencies of this marker when compared to the HIVneg group. Regarding platelet activation, both HICs groups presented higher expression of P-selectin in platelets when compared to control groups. Monocyte subset analyses revealed lower frequencies of classical monocytes and increased frequencies of non-classical and intermediate monocytes among cART individuals and in EC when compared to HIV negative individuals, but none of the differences were significant. For VC, however, significant decreases in frequencies of classical monocytes and increases in the frequency of intermediate monocytes were observed in comparison to HIV negative individuals. The frequency of monocytes expressing tissue factor was similar among the groups on all subsets. In terms of plasma markers, VC had higher levels of many inflammatory markers, while EC had higher levels of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 compared to control groups. Our data showed that VCs display increased levels of inflammation markers that have been associated with CVD risk. Meanwhile, ECs show signals of lower but persistent inflammation, comparable to the cART group, indicating the potential benefits of alternative therapies to decrease inflammation in this group.

Authors: Caetano DG, Ribeiro-Alves M, Hottz ED, Vilela LM, Cardoso SW, Hoagland B, Grinsztejn B, Veloso VG, Morgado MG, Bozza PT, Guimarães ML, Côrtes FH,
Journal: Sci Rep;2022Apr21; 12 (1) 6569. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-10330-9
Year: 2022
PubMed: PMID: 35449171 (Go to PubMed)