Primate Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


Peripheral innate and adaptive immune cells during COVID-19: Functional neutrophils, pro-inflammatory monocytes, and half-dead lymphocytes.


BACKGROUND: A better understanding of innate and adaptive cells in COVID-19 is necessary for the development of effective treatment methods and vaccines. METHODS: We studied phenotypic features of innate and adaptive immune cells, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and apoptosis. One hundred and three patients with COVID-19 were grouped according to their clinical features into the categories of mild (35%), moderate (40.8%), and severe (24.3%). RESULTS: Monocytes were CD16+ pro-inflammatory monocytes and tended to shed their HLA-DR, especially in severe cases (p < 0.01). Neutrophils were mature and functional, although a decline of their CD10 and CD16 was observed (p < 0.01). No defect was found in the reactive oxygen species production and their apoptosis. The percentage of natural killer cells was in the normal range, whereas the percentages of CD8+ NK and CD56+ T lymphocytes were found to be high (p < 0.01). Although the absolute numbers of all lymphocyte subsets were low and showed a tendency for a gradual decrease in accordance with the disease progression, the most decreased absolute number was that of B lymphocytes, followed by CD4+ T cells in the severe cases. The percentages of double-negative T cells; HLA-DR+ CD3+ and CD28- CD8+ subsets were found to be significantly increased. Importantly, we demonstrated the increased baseline activation of caspase-3 and increased lymphocyte apoptosis. CONCLUSION: We suggest that SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the lymphocytes and not the innate cells. The increased baseline activation of Caspase-3 could make the COVID-19 lymphocytes more vulnerable to cell death. Therefore, this may interrupt the crosstalk between the adaptive and innate immune systems.

Authors: Ekşioğlu-Demiralp E, Alan S, Sili U, Bakan D, Ocak İ, Yürekli R, Alpay N, Görçin S, Yıldız A,
Journal: Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2022 Mar;102(2):153-167. . doi:10.1002/cyto.b.22042
Year: 2021
PubMed: PMID: 34846101 (Go to PubMed)