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B cell and monocyte phenotyping: A quick asset to investigate the immune status in patients with IgA nephropathy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) advances from multiple pathogenic "hits" resulting in poorly O-galactosylated IgA1 glycoforms (Gd-IgA1), production of antibodies and glomerular deposition of immune complexes. A sequence of immune responses arising from plasma cells, T cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs), causes glomerular injury. This study was designed to phenotype subsets of B cells, monocytes and T cells in the peripheral circulation and their association with inflammatory cytokines and kidney function in patients with IgAN, healthy controls (HC) and disease controls with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). METHODS: Patients with IgAN (n = 13), median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 57 ml/min/1.73m2 (IQR 42-84), patients with ADPKD (n = 13) matched for kidney function, gender and age and gender and age-matched HC (n = 13) were recruited. CD3+ and CD3- peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and profiled based on their specific surface markers for different subsets of monocytes, B and T cells and analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines were analyzed by ELISA. RESULTS: We observed a significant decrease in the proportion of pre-switched B cells and plasmablasts, but an increase in long-lived plasma cells in the peripheral circulation of IgAN patients compared to HC. The proportion of non-classical monocytes was significantly higher in IgAN patients compared to both HC and ADPKD. We also report an association between sCD40L levels and the proportion of pre-switched B cells, as well as sCD40L and MCP-1 levels and albuminuria in IgAN patients. CONCLUSIONS: We applied an easy-access method to analyze subsets of immune cells as well as relevant inflammatory mediators in IgAN patients. Our data demonstrate an altered B cell profile that indicates a pathophysiological role of the B cell lineage and an increased proportion of non-classical monocytes that suggests their role in the disease process.

Authors: Sendic S, Mansouri L, Lundberg S, Nopp A, Jacobson SH, Lundahl J,
Journal: PLoS One; 2021 ; 16 (3) 0248056. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248056
Year: 2021
PubMed: PMID: 33740017 (Go to PubMed)