Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on the innate and adaptive immune response in cyclists and runners.
The study aimed to identify the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on immunological, hormonal, and metabolic responses of non-professional male athletes. Ten cyclists and ten middle-distance runners received 3 once-a-day sessions of WBC. Before initiating and after the final WBC session, a full set of hematologic parameters, serum chemistry profile, hormones, circulating mitochondrial (mt) DNA levels, cytokines, and chemokines concentration were evaluated. The phenotype of monocyte, T cells, and B cells was analyzed. mRNA expression of 6 genes involved in inflammasome activation (NAIP, AIM2, NLRP3, PYCARD, IL-1beta, and IL-18) was quantified. WBC reduced glucose and C and S protein and increased HDL, urea, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, follicle-stimulating hormone, IL-18, IL-1RA, CCL2, and CXCL8. Intermediate and non-classical monocyte percentages decreased, and the CD14, CCR5, CCR2, and CXCR4 expressions changed in different subsets. Only IL-1beta mRNA increased in monocytes. Finally, a redistribution of B and T cell subsets was observed, suggesting the migration of mature cells to tissue. WBC seems to induce changes in both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system, hormones, and metabolic status in non-professional male athletes, suggesting a beneficial involvement of WBC in tissue repair.
|Authors:||Nasi M, Bianchini E, Lo Tartaro D, De Biasi S, Mattioli M, Paolini A, Gibellini L, Pinti M, De Gaetano A, D'Alisera R, Roli L, Chester J, Mattioli AV, Polverari T, Maietta P, Tripi F, Stefani O, Guerra E, Savino G, Trenti T, Cossarizza A.|
|Journal:||Immunol Res. 2020 Dec;68(6):422-435.|
|PubMed:||PMID: 33159311 (Go to PubMed)|