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Oligomonocytic and overt chronic myelomonocytic leukemia show similar clinical, genomic, and immunophenotypic features.

Abstract

Oligomonocytic chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (OM-CMML) is defined as those myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) or myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable with relative monocytosis (>=10% monocytes) and a monocyte count of 0.5 to <1 x 109/L. These patients show clinical and genomic features similar to those of overt chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), although most of them are currently categorized as MDS, according to the World Health Organization 2017 classification. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features of 40 patients with OM-CMML with well-annotated immunophenotypic and molecular data and compared them to those of 56 patients with overt CMML. We found similar clinical, morphological, and cytogenetic features. In addition, OM-CMML mirrored the well-known complex molecular profile of CMML, except for the presence of a lower percentage of RAS pathway mutations. In this regard, of the different genes assessed, only CBL was found to be mutated at a significantly lower frequency. Likewise, the OM-CMML immunophenotypic profile, assessed by the presence of >94% classical monocytes (MO1s) and CD56 and/or CD2 positivity in peripheral blood monocytes, was similar to overt CMML. The MO1 percentage >94% method showed high accuracy for predicting CMML diagnosis (sensitivity, 90.7%; specificity, 92.2%), even when considering OM-CMML as a subtype of CMML (sensitivity, 84.9%; specificity, 92.1%) in our series of 233 patients (39 OM-CMML, 54 CMML, 23 MDS, and 15 myeloproliferative neoplasms with monocytosis and 102 reactive monocytosis). These results support the consideration of OM-CMML as a distinctive subtype of CMML.

Authors: Calvo X, Garcia-Gisbert N, Parraga I, Gibert J, Florensa L, Andrade-Campos M, Merchan B, Garcia-Avila S, Montesdeoca S, Fernández-Rodríguez C, Salido M, Puiggros A, Espinet B, Colomo L, Roman-Bravo D, Bellosillo B, Ferrer A, Arenillas L,
Journal: Blood Adv; 2020 Oct 27 ; 4 (20) 5285-5296. doi:10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002206
Year: 2020
PubMed: PMID: 33108455 (Go to PubMed)