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Macrophage Polarization in Leprosy-HIV Co-infected Patients.

Abstract

In HIV-infected individuals, a paradoxical clinical deterioration may occur in preexisting leprosy when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated reversal reaction (RR) develops. Leprosy-HIV co-infected patients during HAART may present a more severe form of the disease (RR/HIV), but the immune mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of leprosy-HIV co-infection remain unknown. Although the adaptive immune responses have been extensively studied in leprosy-HIV co-infected individuals, recent studies have described that innate immune cells may drive the overall immune responses to mycobacterial antigens. Monocytes are critical to the innate immune system and play an important role in several inflammatory conditions associated with chronic infections. In leprosy, different tissue macrophage phenotypes have been associated with the different clinical forms of the disease, but it is not clear how HIV infection modulates the phenotype of innate immune cells (monocytes or macrophages) during leprosy. In the present study, we investigated the phenotype of monocytes and macrophages in leprosy-HIV co-infected individuals, with or without RR. We did not observe differences between the monocyte profiles in the studied groups; however, analysis of gene expression within the skin lesion cells revealed that the RR/HIV group presents a higher expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MRS1), CD209 molecule (CD209), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), arginase 2 (ARG2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) when compared with the RR group. Our data suggest that different phenotypes of tissue macrophages found in the skin from RR and RR/HIV patients could differentially contribute to the progression of leprosy.

Authors: da Silva TP, Bittencourt TL, de Oliveira AL, Prata RBDS, Menezes V, Ferreira H, Nery JADC, de Oliveira EB, Sperandio da Silva GM, Sarno EN, Pinheiro RO,
Journal: Front Immunol; 2020 ; 11 1493. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01493
Year: 2020
PubMed: PMID: 32849508 (Go to PubMed)