Cellular events of acute, resolving or progressive COVID-19 in SARS-CoV-2 infected non-human primates.
Understanding SARS-CoV-2 associated immune pathology is crucial to develop pan-effective vaccines and treatments. Here we investigate the immune events from the acute state up to four weeks post SARS-CoV-2 infection, in non-human primates (NHP) with heterogeneous pulmonary pathology. We show a robust migration of CD16 expressing monocytes to the lungs occurring during the acute phase, and we describe two subsets of interstitial macrophages (HLA-DR+CD206-): a transitional CD11c+CD16+ cell population directly associated with IL-6 levels in plasma, and a long-lasting CD11b+CD16+ cell population. Trafficking of monocytes is mediated by TARC (CCL17) and associates with viral load measured in bronchial brushes. We also describe associations between disease outcomes and high levels of cell infiltration in lungs including CD11b+CD16hi macrophages and CD11b+ neutrophils. Accumulation of macrophages is long-lasting and detectable even in animals with mild or no signs of disease. Interestingly, animals with anti-inflammatory responses including high IL-10:IL-6 and kynurenine to tryptophan ratios show less severe illness. Our results unravel cellular mechanisms of COVID-19 and suggest that NHP may be appropriate models to test immune therapies.
|Authors:||Fahlberg MD, Blair RV, Doyle-Meyers LA, Midkiff CC, Zenere G, Russell-Lodrigue KE, Monjure CJ, Haupt EH, Penney TP, Lehmicke G, Threeton BM, Golden N, Datta PK, Roy CJ, Bohm RP, Maness NJ, Fischer T, Rappaport J, Vaccari M,|
|Journal:||Nat Commun; 2020 Nov 27 ; 11 (1) 6078. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19967-4|
|PubMed:||PMID: 33247138 (Go to PubMed)|