Soluble ST2 links inflammation to outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether soluble growth stimulation expressed gene 2 (sST2), a prognostic marker in cardiovascular and inflammatory disorders, is associated with neurological injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: We studied SAH patients from 2 independent cohorts. Outcome assessments included functional status at 90 days using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), mortality, and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). The relationships between sST2 plasma level and outcome measures were assessed in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Primary blood mononuclear cells from SAH patients and elective aneurysm controls were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort, sST2 predicted 90-day mRS 3-6 (C index = 0.724, p < 0.001) and mortality in Kaplan-Meier analysis (p < 0.001). The association with functional status was independent of age, sex, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies score, modified Fisher score, treatment modality, and cardiac comorbidities (adjusted odds ratio = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-5.00, p = 0.039). Higher sST2 concentration was observed in those patients with DCI (90.8 vs 53.7ng/ml, p = 0.003). These associations were confirmed in a replication cohort. In patients with high sST2, flow cytometry identified decreased expression of CD14 (4.27 × 105 ± 2,950 arbitrary unit (AU) vs 5.64 × 105 ± 1,290 AU, p < 0.001), and increased expression of CD16 (39,960 ± 272 AU vs 34,869 ± 183 AU, p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Plasma sST2 predicts DCI, functional outcome, and mortality after SAH, independent of clinical and radiographic markers. Elevated sST2 is also associated with changes in CD14+ CD16+ monocytes.
|Authors:||Bevers MB, Wolcott Z, Bache S, Hansen C, Sastre C, Mylvaganam R, Koch MJ, Patel AB, Møller K, Kimberly WT.|
|Journal:||Ann Neurol. 2019 Sep;86(3):384-394|
|PubMed:||Find in PubMed|