Human αS1-casein induces IL-8 secretion by binding to the ecto-domain of the TLR4/MD2 receptor complex.
BACKGROUND: The milk protein αS1-casein was recently reported to induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, αS1-casein was identified as binder of theTLR4 ecto domain. METHODS: IL-8 secretion after stimulation of TLR4/MD2 (myeloid differentiation factor 2)/CD14 (cluster of differentiation 14)-transfected HEK293 cells (TLR4+) and Mono Mac 6 cells (MM6) with recombinant αS1-casein, or LPS as control was monitored. Binding of αS1-casein to TLR4 was quantified by microscale thermophoresis (MST). RESULTS: αS1-casein induced secretion of IL-8 in TLR4+ cells and in MM6 cells with a six-times higher final IL-8 concentration in supernatants. IL-8 secretion was inhibited by intracellular TLR4-domain antagonist TAK-242 with an IC50-value of 259.6 nM, by ecto-domain TLR4 antagonistic mianserin with 10-51 μM and by anti-CD14-IgA. The binding constants (KD) of αS1-casein to the TLR4, MD2, and CD14 were 2.8 μM, 0.3 μM and 2.7 μM, respectively. Finally, αS1-casein showed a higher affinity to TLR4/MD2 (KD: 2.2 μM) compared to LPS (KD: 8.2 μM). CONCLUSION: Human αS1-casein induced proinflammatory effects are dependent upon binding to the TLR4 ectodomain and the presence of CD14. αS1-casein displayed stronger TLR4 agonistic activity than LPS via a different mode of action. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Breast milk protein αS1-casein is a proinflammatory cytokine.
|Authors:||Saenger T, Vordenbäumen S, Genich S, Haidar S, Schulte M, Nienberg C, Bleck E, Schneider M, Jose J.|
|Journal:||Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2019 Mar;1863(3):632-643|
|PubMed:||Find in PubMed|