The two soluble forms of the lipopolysaccharide receptor, CD14: characterization and release by normal human monocytes
CD14, a glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoprotein, acts as a high affinity lipopolysaccharide receptor on leukocytes. We previously reported that the Mono-Mac-6 cell line releases two different soluble forms of CD14 (sCD14) (Labeta et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 1993. 23: 2144). Here we show that the two sCD14, which we now refer to as sCD14 alpha (low M(r)) and sCD14 beta (high M(r)), are also synthesized and released by normal human monocytes and present in normal plasma. Their mechanism of release was examined by using the Mono-Mac-6 cell line, chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO)/CD14+ transfectants and plasma from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients. It was found that: (1) sCD14 beta is released faster than sCD14 alpha and that the release of the latter is a lengthy process. (2) Monensin blocked the biosynthesis of membrane-bound CD14 (mCD14) and sCD14, additionally, a 50-kDa CD14 polypeptide accumulated in the cell lysate, suggesting that the different forms of CD14 may have a common precursor. (3) Monensin also blocked the release of sCD14 alpha from surface-labeled cells, suggesting that conversion of mCD14 to sCD14 alpha involves a mechanism of endocytosis followed by exocytosis. Interestingly, (4) sCD14 alpha and sCD14 beta were detected in PNH plasma, indicating that sCD14 alpha may also derive from an endogenous pathway. (5) Phospholipase C-released CD14 was identical in size to mCD14, thus differed from sCD14 beta by approximately 2000, indicating that release of sCD14 beta involves further processing. (6) CHO cells transfected with a CD14 cDNA coding for an eight C-terminal amino acids shorter product released an sCD14 beta-like form; thus absence of the eight C-terminal amino acids prevented mCD14 expression but not the secretion of sCD14 beta. The characterization of sCD14 alpha and sCD14 beta reported here may be useful for better understanding of variations in sCD14 levels in pathological conditions and the contribution of each sCD14 in sepsis and other, as yet unknown functions.
|Authors:||Durieux, J.-J., Vita, N., Popescu, O., Guette, F., Calzada-Wack, J., Munker, R., Schmidt, R.E., Lupker, J., Ferrara, P., Ziegler-Heitbrock, H.W.L., Labeta, M.O.|
|Journal:||Eur. J. Immunol., 24: 2006-2012|
|PubMed:||Find in PubMed|