Association between autonomic nervous dysfunction and cellular inflammation in end-stage renal disease.
BACKGROUND: Alterations in autonomic nervous function are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Sympathetic as well as parasympathetic activation may be associated with immune and inflammatory responses. We intended to confirm a role of autonomous dysregulation for inflammation in HD patients. METHODS: 30 HD patients (including 15 diabetics) and 15 healthy controls were studied for heart rate variability (HRV) using 5 min ECG recordings. Heart rate variability was estimated by time-domain parameters (the standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN) and the percentage of pairs of adjacent RR intervals differing by >50 ms (pNN50)) and frequency-domain-analysis (high- and low-frequency variation of RR intervals, HF and LF). Inflammation was detected as serum C-reactive Protein (CRP), IL-6 and circulating monocyte subpopulation numbers. Immune cells were characterized by ACh receptor expression. RESULTS: Patients differed from controls in terms of age (68.0 [14.8] yrs vs. 58.0 [13.0] yrs, p < 0.001; Median [IQR]) and sex. However, HRV parameters were different in controls and HD patients (SDNN controls 34.0 [14.0] ms, HD patients 15.5 [14.8] ms, p < 0.01). This finding was not restricted to patients with diabetes mellitus (diab), although diabetes is an important cause of autonomous dysfunction (SDNN, diab 13.0 [14.0] ms, non-diab 18.0 [15.3] ms, p = 0.8). LF and HF were reduced by the same magnitude to 1/3 of those in controls. Patients suffered from chronic inflammation (CRP 9.4 [12.9] mg/l, controls 1.6 [2.4] mg/l, p < 0.001) and expanded proinflammatory monocyte subpopulations (CD14++/CD16+ cells: patients 41 /μl, controls 24 /μl, p < 0.01). ECG parameters did not correlate with inflammation in patients, but monocyte ACh receptor expression was enhanced, indicating potentially elevated responsiveness of this cell type to parasympathetic regulation. CONCLUSIONS: HD patients have strongly impaired HRV. Chronic inflammation is not related to autonomous dysfunction, although monocytes express the ACh receptor at enhanced density making them potentially more sensitive to parasympathetic effects.
|Authors:||Seibert E, Zohles K, Ulrich C, Kluttig A, Nuding S, Kors JA, Swenne CA, Werdan K, Fiedler R, Girndt M.|
|Journal:||BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2016 Nov 3;16(1):210.|
|PubMed:||Find in PubMed|