Human Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock


JMML and RALD (Ras-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder): common genetic etiology yet clinically distinct entities.


Ras-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder (RALD) is a chronic, nonmalignant condition that presents with persistent monocytosis and is often associated with leukocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and autoimmune phenomena. RALD has clinical and laboratory features that overlap with those of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), including identical somatic mutations in KRAS or NRAS genes noted in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Long-term follow-up of these patients suggests that RALD has an indolent clinical course whereas JMML is fatal if left untreated. Immunophenotyping peripheral blood from RALD patients shows characteristic circulating activated monocytes and polyclonal CD10+ B cells. Distinguishing RALD from JMML and CMML has implications for clinical care and prognosis.

Authors: Calvo KR, Price S, Braylan RC, Oliveira JB, Lenardo M, Fleisher TA, Rao VK.
Journal: Blood.;125:2753-2758
Year: 2015
PubMed: Find in PubMed