Potent and Prolonged Hypoglycemic Activity of an Oral Insulin - Tat Mixture in Diabetic Mice
Trans-activator of transcription (Tat) is a cell penetrating peptide which can translocate and carry macromolecular cargoes through cell membranes. This study investigated the hypoglycemic activity of orally delivered insulin - Tat mixture in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The mixtures of insulin and Tat at 1:1, 1:3 and 1:6 molar ratios were given orally at the insulin doses ranging from 1-200 IU/kg. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured at initial, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h after administration. At 1:3 molar ratio of the mixture and after 12 h of administration, insulin at 200 IU/kg showed the highest with prolonged hypoglycemic activity of 74.0±10.3% FBG reduction (2.18 folds of subcutaneously injected (SC) insulin). Free insulin administered orally did not show any hypoglycemic activity. The mixtures at the insulin doses of 100 and 50 IU/kg also showed potent FBG reduction of 73.8±8.2 and 71.3±16.9% at 12 h after administration (2.18 and 2.10 folds of SC insulin, respectively). After incubation with Mono-Mac-6 cells, only the -mixtures but not the free insulin showed intra-cellular insulin uptake, indicating the insulin penetration through the cell membranes via Tat. In simulated gastric fluid, the insulin content in the mixture was not found, demonstrating the degradation of insulin in the gastric environments. Insulin may be absorbed at upper gastrointestinal tract facilitated by Tat. The potent and prolonged hypoglycemic activity of insulin co-administered orally with Tat can be further developed as an effective oral insulin delivery system.
|Authors:||Manosroi J, Tangjai T, Werner RG, Götz F, Manosroi W, Manosroi A|
|Journal:||Drug Res (Stuttg).|
|PubMed:||Find in PubMed|