Minocycline Inhibition of Monocyte Activation Correlates with Neuronal Protection in SIV NeuroAIDS
Background: Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been proposed as a potential conjunctive therapy for HIV-1 associated cognitive disorders. Precise mechanism(s) of minocycline's functions are not well defined. Methods: Fourteen rhesus macaques were SIV infected and neuronal metabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS). Seven received minocycline (4 mg/kg) daily starting at day 28 post-infection (pi). Monocyte expansion and activation were assessed by flow cytometry, cell traffic to lymph nodes, CD16 regulation, viral replication, and cytokine production were studied. Results: Minocycline treatment decreased plasma virus and pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16+ and CD14loCD16+ monocytes, and reduced their expression of CD11b, CD163, CD64, CCR2 and HLA-DR. There was reduced recruitment of monocyte/ macrophages and productively infected cells in axillary lymph nodes. There was an inverse correlation between brain NAA/ Cr (neuronal injury) and circulating CD14+CD16+ and CD14loCD16+ monocytes. Minocycline treatment in vitro reduced SIV replication CD16 expression on activated CD14+CD16+ monocytes, and IL-6 production by monocytes following LPS stimulation. Conclusion: Neuroprotective effects of minocycline are due in part to reduction of activated monocytes, monocyte traffic. Mechanisms for these effects include CD16 regulation, reduced viral replication, and inhibited immune activation.
|Authors:||Campbell JH, Burdo TH, Autissier P, Bombardier JP, Westmoreland SV, Soulas C, Gonzalez RG, Ratai EM, Williams KC|
|Journal:||PLoS One Vol. 6 Issue 4, p1|
|PubMed:||PMID: 21494695 (Go to PubMed)|