Lipopolysaccharide and platelet-activating factor stimulate expression of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase via distinct signaling pathways
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate and characterize the ability of platelet-activating factor (PAF) to induce the expression of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH). METHODS: Ribonuclease protection assays and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and PAF to regulate PAF-AH mRNA expression in human monocyte-macrophage 6 (MM6) cells. Pharmacological inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and PAF receptor antagonists were used to investigate the mechanism of regulation of PAF-AH. RESULTS: PAF-AH mRNA levels were increased upon exposure to LPS or PAF in a dose-dependent manner. LPS elicited a more potent and rapid increase in PAF-AH expression than the PAF-stimulated response. However, when administered concomitantly, PAF augmented the LPS-stimulated response. LPS-stimulated PAF-AH expression was susceptible to partial inhibition by a p38 MAPK inhibitor and PAF receptor antagonists. PAF-induced up-regulation of PAF-AH levels was solely mediated via the PAF receptor and was p38 MAPK-independent. CONCLUSION: The proinflammatory mediators, LPS and PAF, increased levels of PAF-AH mRNA via distinct signaling pathways.
|Authors:||Howard KM, Abdel-Al M, Ditmyer M, Patel N|
|PubMed:||Find in PubMed|