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Human macrophages and innate lymphoid cells: Tissue-resident innate immunity in humanized mice.

Abstract

Macrophages and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are tissue-resident cells that play important roles in organ homeostasis and tissue immunity. Their intricate relationship with the organs they reside in allows them to quickly respond to perturbations of organ homeostasis and environmental challenges, such as infection and tissue injury. Macrophages and ILCs have been extensively studied in mice, yet important species-specific differences exist regarding innate immunity between humans and mice. Complementary to ex-vivo studies with human cells, humanized mice (i.e. mice with a human immune system) offer the opportunity to study human macrophages and ILCs in vivo within their surrounding tissue microenvironments. In this review, we will discuss how humanized mice have helped gain new knowledge about the basic biology of these cells, as well as their function in infectious and malignant conditions. Furthermore, we will highlight active areas of investigation related to human macrophages and ILCs, such as their cellular heterogeneity, ontogeny, tissue residency, and plasticity. In the near future, we expect more fundamental discoveries in these areas through the combined use of improved humanized mouse models together with state-of-the-art technologies, such as single-cell RNA-sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.

Authors: Alisjahbana A, Mohammad I, Gao Y, Evren E, Ringqvist E, Willinger T.
Journal: Biochem Pharmacol. 2020 Apr;174:113672.
Year: 2020
PubMed: Find in PubMed