Human Monocytes - CD14, CD16 - Ziegler-Heitbrock

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Intracanal Metformin Promotes Healing of Apical Periodontitis via Suppressing Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Monocyte Recruitment.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that intracanal metformin ameliorates apical periodontitis, partially by modulation of osteoblast apoptosis. The action of metformin on other cell types pertinent to the development of apical periodontitis needs to be examined. In the present study, we aimed to analyze whether its effects on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and monocyte recruitment contribute to the therapeutic effect on apical periodontitis. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of iNOS in a human monocytic cell line, Mono-Mac-6, was assessed by Western blot. The amount of nitrite in culture medium was assessed to quantify nitric oxide (NO) production. C-C motif chemokine ligand-2 (CCL-2) synthesis was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Experimental apical periodontitis in rats was treated with root canal debridement with or without intracanal metformin medication. Lesion progression was assessed by conventional radiography and micro-computed tomographic imaging. Cellular expression of iNOS and the number of monocytes/macrophages were assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Metformin suppressed LPS-induced iNOS and NO production by monocytes. More importantly, metformin inhibited LPS-enhanced CCL-2 synthesis through modulation of the iNOS/NO pathway. Intracanal metformin reduced bone resorption associated with apical periodontitis and suppressed iNOS expression and monocyte recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of intracanal metformin for apical periodontitis. Suppression of monocyte recruitment through modulation of iNOS expression and NO production is an important mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of metformin.

Authors: Wang HW, Lai EH, Yang CN, Lin SK, Hong CY, Yang H, Chang JZ, Kok SH.
Journal: J Endod. 2020 Jan;46(1):65-73
Year: 2020
PubMed: Find in PubMed