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miR-155 in the Resolution of Atherosclerosis.

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease where advanced lesions can eventually completely obstruct blood flow resulting in clinical events, such as a myocardial infarction or stroke. Monocytes and macrophages are the dominant biologically active immune cells involved in atherosclerosis disease and play a pivotal role during initiation, progression, and regression of disease. Altering macrophage inflammation is critical to induce regression of atherosclerosis and microRNAs (miRs) have emerged as key regulators of the macrophage phenotype. MiRs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are dysregulated during atherosclerosis development and are key regulators of macrophage function and polarization. MiRs are short nucleotide transcripts that are very stable in circulation and thus have potential as therapeutics and/or biomarkers in the context of atherosclerosis. Of relevance to this review is that inhibition of macrophage-specific miR-155 may be a viable therapeutic strategy to decrease inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. However, further studies on these miRs and advancements in miR therapeutic delivery are required for these therapeutics to advance to the clinical setting. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a pro-resolving lipid mediator, is an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. The biological activities of CLA have been documented to have anti-atherogenic effects in experimental models of atherosclerosis, inducing regression and impacting on monocyte and macrophage cells. Our work and that of others on PPAR-γ agonists and polyunsaturated fatty acids have shown that these mediators regulate candidate miRNAs and promote pro-resolving atherosclerotic plaque microenvironments

Authors: Bruen R, Fitzsimons S, Belton O.
Journal: Front Pharmacol. 2019 May 14;10:463.
Year: 2019
PubMed: Find in PubMed