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MicroRNAs: Fine Tuners of Monocyte Heterogeneity.

Abstract

Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play critical roles in many biological processes by controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They appear to fine-tune the immune response by targeting key regulatory molecules, and their abnormal expression is associated with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Monocytes actively contribute to tissue homeostasis by triggering acute inflammatory reactions as well as the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration, in case of injury or pathogen invasion. Their contribution to tissue homeostasis can have many aspects because they are able to differentiate into different cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts, which fulfill functions as different as bone remodeling and immune response. Monocytes consist of different subsets with subset-specific expression of miRNAs linked to distinct biological processes dedicated to specific roles. Therefore, understanding the role of miRNAs in the context of monocyte heterogeneity may provide clues as to which subset gives rise to which cell type in tissues. In addition, because monocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, associated with loss of tissue homeostasis and function, identifying subset-specific miRNAs might help in developing therapeutic strategies that target one subset while sparing the others. Here, we give an overview of the state-of-the-art research regarding miRNAs that are differentially expressed between monocyte subsets and how they influence monocyte functional heterogeneity in health and disease, with descriptions of specific miRNAs. We also revisit the existing miRNome data to propose a canonical signature for each subset.

Authors: Duroux-Richard I, Robin M, Peillex C, Apparailly F.
Journal: Front Immunol. 2019 Sep 23;10:2145.
Year: 2019
PubMed: Find in PubMed