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Immune cell subset differentiation and tissue inflammation.

Abstract

Immune cells were traditionally considered as major pro-inflammatory contributors. Recent advances in molecular immunology prove that immune cell lineages are composed of different subsets capable of a vast array of specialized functions. These immune cell subsets share distinct duties in regulating innate and adaptive immune functions and contribute to both immune activation and immune suppression responses in peripheral tissue. Here, we summarized current understanding of the different subsets of major immune cells, including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages. We highlighted molecular characterization, frequency, and tissue distribution of these immune cell subsets in human and mice. In addition, we described specific cytokine production, molecular signaling, biological functions, and tissue population changes of these immune cell subsets in both cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Finally, we presented a working model of the differentiation of inflammatory mononuclear cells, their interaction with endothelial cells, and their contribution to tissue inflammation. In summary, this review offers an updated and comprehensive guideline for immune cell development and subset differentiation, including subset characterization, signaling, modulation, and disease associations. We propose that immune cell subset differentiation and its complex interaction within the internal biological milieu compose a "pathophysiological network," an interactive cross-talking complex, which plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory diseases and cancers.

Authors: Immune cell subset differentiation and tissue inflammation. Fang P, Li X, Dai J, Cole L, Camacho JA, Zhang Y, Ji Y, Wang J, Yang XF, Wang H.
Journal: J Hematol Oncol. 2018 Jul 31;11(1):97
Year: 2018
PubMed: Find in PubMed